The Siberian Scientific Medical Journal
 
 
№ 5 / 2019 / 19-28
DOI 10.15372/SSMJ20190503

MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF LITHIUM COMPOUNDS

Author Affiliations

Abstract

This review summarizes the literature data on the role of lithium compounds in modern pharmacotherapy of various diseases of the central nervous system. Attention is also paid to other therapeutic properties of lithium in atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic disorders, inflammation, and diseases of the urinary system. Possible ways of delivering lithium into the body have been charted, in particular, when lithium salt is combined with a sorbent (solid porous carrier). Such compounds have additional therapeutic properties. Data on the significance of lithium compounds in studies on models of diseases of the nervous system in animals are analyzed. Among these models, models of neonatal ischemia/hypoxia of the brain in vivo, neurodegenerative diseases, psychopathological states (aggressiveness, depression) and craniocerebral injury are discussed. There are researches in which the results of the lithium preparations use in clinical practice are investigated. It emphasizes the influence of genetic factors on the lithium effects. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of preventing the toxicity of lithium compounds for the body. The currently known molecular mechanisms of lithium action are discussed: inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1), which have key value for autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial function, induction of neurotrophic factors, apoptosis. It was concluded that the study of the molecular pathways of the functioning of lithium compounds empowers understanding both the reasons for its effectiveness in the nervous system diseases and the mechanisms of action on other body systems.

Key words

GSK-3β, IMPA1, diseases of the nervous system, mechanisms of action, lithium preparations, solid porous carrier, toxic effects of lithium
References
About Authors (Correspondence):

Shurlygina A.V., e-mail: anna_v_s@mail.ru

Full Text

Received: 30/10/2019
Accepted: 30/10/2019